What is data ? Why are you not from any background, all of us must have used the word data at some time or the other. But despite this, many times this question definitely arises in our mind that what is this data in the end, and why is this data considered more important in all places. If you also want to know about the true meaning of data, then you have tried to explain what this article is about data and what are its types such as all the information which is associated with the data.
By the way, data is not just a term related to a computer , but data is called plain facts. The word ‘ data ‘ is plural of ‘ datum ‘. This data can be anything like population of a country, number of patients in hospitals, fixing of a school etc. All these things are not organized or structured in their natural form, so they cannot be used much.
At the same time, if this data is presented by processes, organized, structured, to make them useful in a particular context, then it is called Information. This was just a simple definition of data and information, to know in full details, what is this article data? You will have to read it completely, so that you will get complete information about the data, its type and their usage. So without delay, let’s start and try to know what is data.
What is data ?
We can say that data is a representation of facts, concepts, or instructions in a formalized manner, which is suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by human or electronic machine.
We can represent data with the help of characters such as alphabets ( AZ, az ), digits (0-9) or any special characters ( +, -, /, *, <,>, = ) etc. This data can be any character, text, numbers, pictures, sound, or even video. At the same time, if the data is not inserted in any context, then it does not work, whether it is for a human or a computer.
Data is of no use in its raw form. But when we process and interpret the same data, then the correct meaning of them comes out, and which are very useful for us. These processed data are also called information.
Analog vs. Digital Data
There are two general ways of representing data: analog and digital. Analog data are often continuous – they are ‘ analogous’ to the actual facts that they represent. Digital data is very discrete and they are broken up into limited number of elements. For example, nature is analog, whereas computers are digital.
Our natural world is often continuous in nature. For example, you can see the colors of the rainbow. In this, the rainbow is continuous and provides shades of infinite number. Whereas in computer systems, they are continuous but finite. All the data that you store in binary digits, these limit how many data can be represented.
Types of Data
Computer systems work with different types of digital data. In the earlier days of computing, data primarily used to be text and numbers only; But at the same time, when talking about modern day computing, there are many types of multimedia data , such as audio, images, graphics and video. But ultimately, all data types are stored according to binary digits only.
For each data type, there are some very specific techniques to convert them into computers between binary language and how we interpret them with our senses, such as sight and sound.
What is database
We cannot speak much about data without naming the database. Yes, a database is an organized collection of data. Instead of putting the data in random order in such a list, a structure is provided to them with the help of a database, to organize those data.
A very common data structures is database table. This table mainly consists of rows and columns. Each row is typically called a record, while each column is typically called a field .
What is information?
Information is a type of data that has been completely processed in such a way that it would be very meaningful for the person who receives it. It can be anything that can be communicated.
Where data is called raw facts, while information processed data is called. For example, subject marks, roll number, age, rank, etc. of students of a class can be called data. Whereas if you are asked to bring the marks of maths of the best 5 students out of those students, then you must first categorize all the data of those students and then by processing it you can provide the requested data. Here, the data you get on the basis of results is called information .
Information is very organized and classified data, which has some meaningful values for the receiver. Information is a type of processed data on which decisions and actions are based.
To make decision meaningful, processed data must qualify some characteristics, which are
- Timely – Information should always be available when they are needed.
- Accuracy – Information should always be accurate.
- Completeness – Information should always be complete.
If a processed data has all these characteristics then they are actually called information.
How is data stored?
Hard drive or any other storage device is used to store data and information in a computer .
Data that is stored in computer memory / storage are mainly categorized into two parts.
1. Permanent storage (Hard disk/ Hard drive)
2. Temporary storage (RAM – Random Access memory).
The main difference between these two is that it maintains the permanent storage data even in case of power failure, it can retain it until you delete it intentionally while the temporary memory data gets lost immediately. Are when power failure occurs and it is automatically managed by the computer’s CPU .
Most computer applications use temporary memory to run processes. Once the process is complete, then it is used to run other new processes. It is mainly used to store temporary files.
When we group bits together, it is given a name in the computer industry. For most references, computers use the number of bytes as a measure for the computer’s memory (primary storage) capacity and storage (secondary) capacity.
Computer memory is divided (divided) into a number of data containers called memory cells.
All cells can store only a specific amount of data called a word (eg 8 bits of data).
All cells have an associated location identifier called an address.
The data that is processed is coded in binary (base-2 number) form for which many different types of encoding schemes are used, let’s discuss them further.
To begin with, digits are 0 and 1 binary digits and each is called a bit in short.
At the same time, 0 represents OFF state and 1 represents ON state.
If n bits are in a cell, and there are 2n (called “2 to the power or n”) ways in which zeros and ones are arranged, for example 2 binary digits (either 1 or 0), all of them are arranged. (22 or 2 × 2 or 4) can be possibilities which are -00, 01, 10 and 11.
To determine the capacity of a computer’s memory, their two aspects are considered, the first is how many number of bits are per cell and the number of cells in which memory is partitioned, for example, computer memory depends. Is how many bits are stored in each cell and how many cells are available.
According to the computer industry, sequence of 8-bits (also called byte) is the basic unit of memory.
Units for Measuring Memory (Data Storage) Capacity:
|1 Bit||= 1 Binary Digit|
|4 Bits||= 1 Nibble|
|8 Bits||= 1 Byte|
|210= 1024 Bytes||= 1 Kilobyte|
|220 = 1024 Kilobyte||= 1 Megabyte|
|230= 1024 Megabyte||= 1 Gigabyte|
|240= 1024 Gigabyte||= 1 Terabyte|
|250= 1024 Terabyte||= 1 Petabyte|
Types of data
Talking about Programming, then we can say that data type is a classification that specifies which type of value is near a variable and which type of mathematical, relational or logical operations will be applied to them. Which will not cause any error.
For example, a string is a data type that is used to classify text, while an integer is a data type used to classify whole numbers.
|Data Type||Where is used||Examples|
|String||Alphanumeric characters||hello world ram gopal123|
|Integer||Whole numbers||74 124 99009|
|Float (floating point)||Number that has a decimal point||9.15 5.06 0.193|
|Character||Encoding text to encode numerically||97 (in ASCII 97 is a lower case ‘a’)|
|Boolean||represents logical values||TRUE FALSE|
There are also many other types of data. Which I have mentioned below.
Such data contain numbers up to 0-9 i.e. Decimal Numbers. Especially this numerical data is used in computer. In Excel sheet we use numerical data at the same time as data.
Any type of alphabet whether it is Hindi (A, B, C) or English (A, B, C) are all under this Alphabetic Data.
Alpha numeric data
Just like it sounds, these types of signs like @, #, $ etc. come in the data.
Audio data | Sound
These data contain all kinds of songs, recordings etc. which are used in audio format like MP3, WAV, format.
Video Data | Video (video data)
This type of data contains all types of videos and they are used in video format such as MP4, MKV etc. format.
Graphical Data | Sketch
Images, pictures, graphical data etc. are used in JPG, PNG format under such data.
What is Data Processing?
Data processing is a process in which raw data is converted into meaningful information through a process. The data is manipulated so that it can produce results and by which a problem can be resolved or the situation of a mega problem can be improved.
Like a production process, it also follows a cycle where inputs (raw data) are put into a process (computer systems, software, etc.) to produce output (information and insights).
Data Processing Basic Stages
The basic stages mainly consist of three steps of the data processing cycle.
- Input In
this step, the input data is prepared in a convenient form for processing. It depends on the form processing machine. For example, when electronic computers are used, the input data is stored in a single medium such as magnetic disks, tapes, or anything else.
- Processing In
this step, the input data is converted into produce data which is a more useful form. For example, sales orders are viewed to calculate the summary of sales in a company.
- Output In
this step, the result of the previous processing step is collected. Any particular form of output data depends on how that data is used. For example, the output data can also contain pay-checks of any employees.
Let us now understand the basic stages of data processing in details.
In this input process, the data is collected and stored somewhere. Store means that somewhere it is collected, whether you can store it in computer or you can also write in paper. Understand the second process of input.
Before inputting the collection, we need to collect the data. Data is collected from different sources, such as to know how many schools are there in a city, all schools have to go. Facts are collected. How many students have more than 50% marks in a class. There is a need to collect the mark sheet of every student to know this information.
Now the next step is Verification, where it is confirmed that the data taken for input is true or false. Like when the result is first verified before doing PUBLISH. You too do verify once before giving a report to anyone.
c) Coding In
this step the data is coded, it means that it is converted into machine form i.e. to convert to Computer Readable Form. Which computer can easily process Input data.
Now which is entered in excel or word of data computer. That data is stored in the computer. For this, a storage device is used. When the data is stored in the computer, only the next step is sent for processing.
This is the step where the process of creating information starts. Here all these given below techniques are used, such as classification, sorting, calculation, summarizing.
a) Classification In
this process, data is classified into groups and subgroups. Which will make it easier to understand the data properly. For example, if we classify the students’ data in college, then the data of science category will be separated, the data of commerce category will be separated and the data of arts category will be kept separately, which makes data analysis easy.
Here, the data is arranged in an organized order. Which will make it easier for us to access the data . Sorting Order Anything can be Ascending or Descending. It depends on the user how he wants to sort the data. For example, roll number in class is placed in Alphabetical Order. Marks from Highest mark to lowest mark.
c) An arithmetic operation is performed over the data given in the Calculation Calculation Process. Like those operations can be any of these sum, average, percentage. Ex-how much are the average marks of students in a class, the ratio of male and female, all of these are covered in the calculation steps. Through this, we get a properly summarized information.
d) After performing
all the operations given above Summarizing Input data, a summarized report is produced. No information is ever given to the management in a company, it is just sent to Sharans.
This is because they do not have time for everything and it also saves time. Like doctors, after doing many tests, give a report that this man has this disease. Report card is also a summary of exam result. Perhaps you have understood how data is sent for processing and how it happens.
When all the steps of processing are finished, then the output result is obtained, which can be called information. The only purpose of the processing step is to get the best result and give it to the user. Most of the time, the output information is stored in a storage device. Such as hard disk, pen drive, CD, DVD.
Output (activities on Output Result)
retrieval mode, the output result can be retrieved from Storage Media whenever desired. For example, whenever you want the result of a student’s 7 semester exam, anyone can see the marks of the semester. This process is called Retrieval.
Output result can be changed in different form. You may have seen that the output result obtained after processing the data can be seen in any of these forms such as Output Information – Graph, Flowchart, Chart, Table, Diagram, Report. GRAPH of Population of India, Population growth chart, College time table are all examples of Output result.
Whatever output comes out after the communication data is processed, it is an information. Which is very important to share, such as to make the information easily available to everyone in news paper. If we talk about the college time table that is printed on the Peon Notice Board.
By which all students get this information, this is called communication. The process of sharing the output result is called communication. (Nowadays since the camera has come, sharing is happening as soon as photos are put in the wahtsapp group like time table photo, result, notice)
What is the methods of data processing ?
Whatever data is best in the whole world, it does not work unless it is processed properly. Data processing is the process in which raw data is converted into usable information by using some methods.
Yes, paper and pencil can be used for this work, but since we are in the 21st century and there is no shortage of data here, it means that the quantity of data is very high and in this way we have to use new innovation technology such as computer Can be used.
To process the data used by the computer, they are first collected, checked for accuracy and only then they are entered into the computer. So let’s know about some such data processing methods.
Batch processing is a very grunt work, it is the simplest form of data processing. This is more useful when an organization has large volumes of data and can be clumped (in one place) into one or two categories.
For example, in a store where transactions can be categorized in one place with the help of batch-process. If no information is changed then batch processing is very fast.
Some batch-processing is not so fast. Real-time processing methods handle data when they require instant turn-around time. For example, if a passenger buys an airline ticket and cancels it, then the airline has to update its records instantly.
Records are instantly updated by this process. Where batch processing involves processing a lot of data in a specified time, real-time processing is a continuous process.
In data mining , data is taken from multiple sources and pools and combine them to look for correlations. For example, a grocery chain has to analyze the purchase of the customer and it has to be found that the customers who buy the grains, often after that they buy bananas.
Then this chain can increase sales by using this information, so to increase sales, having such joint purchases can prove to be very good for their sales.
Heavy number-crunching occurs in statistical processing. A company that knows that they are a little more busy on a day of the week. This happens because many customers give their requests at the last moment, so such problems often occur.
The company can deal with such a problem because the cause is known. With the help of statistics, it is easy to compare data, whether it is companies of different sizes or different cities.
What is the difference between data and information ?
|BASIS OF COMPARISON||DATA||INFORMATION|
|Meaning||Data are raw facts, these facts are completely uncategorized, such facts have no purpose at all.||Such facts which are used after processing, such processed data are called information.|
|what is this||These are just text and numbers.||This is refined data|
|Based on whom||Records and Observations||Analysis|
|Form||Are unorganized||Are organized|
|Useful||It is useful sometimes not||Always useful|
|Dependency||It does not depend on the information||Information is not processed without data.|
Frequently asked questions
1. Memory data to be withdrawn ?
A – If the data has been deleted from your memory card, whether it is a photo or a song, for this you will have to install the recovery software first in the computer. Then remove the memory card from your mobile and connect it with the computer. Then by running the software you can get your deleted data again.
2. What will be the command to edit the saved data in MS dos ?
A – If youhave written something inMS Dos File and want to know how to edit it, then you have to open that document first for this, you will get an opportunity to edit it as soon as you do it. You can then save it later.
3. Display broke down, how did mobile data get out or how to connect to laptop ?
A – If your mobile display is defective and you want to use its data, then you have to connect it with your system. For this, many data recovery software is available on the internet, you can use them for data recovery.
4. What is the work of District data assistant ?
A – District data assistant (DDA) is used to do whatever technical work is done in the district level and official work in which this assistant is used by the computer. In addition, if you have to do some excel work, create graphs, even the task of categorizing very official data has to be done.
5. How to save data in SD card ?
A – Since the phone memory of the phone is very low, often users have to save the data in SD card and also may have to transfer these data to SD card. So there are many such apps in google playstore that you can use for data transfer.
6. Is HDFC Bank maintained for Private to Data Entry Operator ?
A – Yes, in private banks like HDFC bank, Data Entry Operator is posted. If you want, you can apply on opening.
7. Data Input is done from which part of the computer ?
If you have to input something in A – Computer, then you have to use input devices. Such as keyboard, mouse, OCR, OMR. With this, if you want to insert some data into the computer then you can do so by inserting a pendrive or CD.
8. How to insert data in MS Word ?
A – In MS Word, you can use the insert menu to insert data. For this, you can watch and learn videos of using MS words in youtube, absolutely free.
9. What does Keyboard Data Input say to it ?
The user can input data into the computer through A – Keyboard. This is because the keyboard is an input device.
I hope that I have given you complete information about what is data and I hope that you guys have understood about what data is.
If you have any doubts about this data in Hindi or you want that there should be some improvement in it, then for this you can write low comments. With these ideas, you will get a chance to learn something and improve something.
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