What is Antenna and how does it work ?

What is antenna : Do you know what is this antenna ? How does this antenna work and what does it do for us? If there is no answer to all the questions, then you should definitely read this article Antenna. There will be many of us who must have heard about the antenna, many must have seen that because a few years ago TV antenna was installed on the roof for TV in all of our houses and sometimes if due to wind Do not ask if that antenna rotates, one had to get very upset, where one man used to watch TV below, while the other goes up and straightens it. What were those days really too.

What is Antenna
What is Antenna

There has been a huge difference between that time and now. Current antenna satellites work on Tv whose data reception is directly from satellite. Antenna is primarily designed to receive signals. When a broadcasting station broadcasts any messages, then with the help of an antenna, those signals can be seen on Television. To understand the whole technology and to know about Antenna and its type, you will have to read this article completely. Often students are unable to find the right sources to understand the basics of antenna, so today I thought, why do you people understand what antenna is in  Hindi and how it works in Hindi, so that you can understand the rest of the technology. Ho. Let’s start without delay.

Antenna is a type of device that is used to transmit and receive electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic waves are often known as radio waves. Most antennas are resonant devices, which operate efficiently in a very narrow frequency band. For an antenna to operate properly, it has to tune (match) with the frequency band of the same radion system with which it is connected, if it does not happen then both reception and transmission interrupts will be received.

Antenna is used to radiate electromagnetic energy efficiently and that too only in the desired directions. Antennas behave like matching systems between souces of electromagnetic energy and space. The main objective of these antennas is how to always optimize this matching.

Let us know briefly about some basic properties of antenna:

1- Field intensity is for all directions (as per antenna pattern).

2- The total power that radiate when the antenna is excited by a current or voltage is called intensity.

3- How much power radiate and the ratio of total power is called Radiation efficiency.

4- Antenna’s input impedance is always for maximum power transfer (matching).

5- Antenna’s bandwidth or range of frequencies on which all these properties depend is almost constant.

All antennas are used to receive or radiate energy.

History of antenna

By the way, the history of Antenna is very old. Let us know something in this context. The first experiment was done by Faraday in 1830 in which he did coupling of electricity and magnetism and in which he showed that they both have a definitive relationship. For this, he slid a magnet on the sides of the coil of wire which was attached to the galvanometer. When he moved the magnet, he found that a time varying magnetic field is generated and also from Maxwell equations it was found that time varying electric field is also generated. The coil acts as a loop antenna and receives the electromagnetic radiation, which is detected by a galvanometer – it is entirely the work of an antenna.

The interesting thing in this is that till that time nobody had known about electromagnetic waves.

Heinrich Hertz developed a wireless communication system in which he forced an electrical spark to occur between the gap of the dipole antenna. He used a loop antenna as the receiver and followed the disturbance in the same way. This thing happened in 1886. In 1901, Marconi sent across information of atlantic. He attached a lot of vertical wires to the ground on the basis of a transmitting antenna.

In 1906, Columbia University built one such Experimental Wireless Station where they used a transmitting aerial cage. This cage was also made of wires and was suspended in the air.

After that many similar experiments were done and according to the dates I have written below: –

1 . Yagi – Uda Antenna, 1920
2 . Horn Antenna, 1939
3 . Antenna Arrays, 1940
4 . Parabolic Reflectors, late 1940s में
5 . Patch Antennas, 1970
6 . PIFA, 1980

After this, this trend continued and many such changes came in antennas and the antenna we are using right now has come to know only after learning from all these antennas.

Antenna type

Although there are many types of antennas, they are mainly divided into three broad categories: omni-directional, directional, and semi-directional.

1. Where Omni-directional antennas propagate in all directions.

2. Another is Semi-directional antennas that propagate in a constricted fashion, and they are defined in a specific angle.

3. The third is Directional antennas which has a narrow “beam” which allows highly directional propagation; The familiar types in it are parabolic and Yagi. All of them have unique characteristics and applications.

Dipole Antennas or Rubber Ducky Antenna

These Dipole antennas are very common type of antenna and are also omni-directional, they propagate radio frequency (RF) energy in 360 degree horizontal plane. These devices have been made somewhat similar in that they resonate at a frequency of half or quarter wavelength that is applied to it. This antenna is very simple in which two pieces of wire cut are proper length and encapsulated.

This configuration is usually referred to as the “rubber ducky” antenna. This dipole is used in many enterprise and small office, home office (SOHO) Wi-Fi deployments.

Directional Antenna

Directional and semi-directional antennas mainly focus in narrow beams to radiate power, so that they add a significant amount of gain to the process. Antenna’s properties are also reciprocal. The characteristics of transmitting antenna such as impedance and gain are applicable over a receiving antenna. That is why the same antenna is used for both sending and receiving.

The gain of this highly directional parabolic antenna is used to amplify weak signals; This is the reason why this type of antenna is frequently used for long distance links.

Patch Antenna or Microstrip Antenna

A patch antenna is a type of semi-directional radiator in which a flat metal strip is mounted above the ground plane. The radiation that emerges from the back of the antenna is effectively cut off with the help of the ground plane, so that its forward directionality can be increased. This type of antenna is also called microstrip antenna. It is typically of rectangular shape and is enclosed in a plastic enclosure.

This type of antenna can be manufactured in a standard printed circuit board methods. Patch antennas are mostly used as semi-directionals; The beam width of a patch antenna is between 30 to 180 degrees and a typical gain is 9 dB.

Sector Antenna

Sector antennas are also another type of semi-directional antenna. Sector antennas provide the radiation pattern of pie-shaped (sector) and they are usually installed in a sectorized array. Their beamwidth is between 60 and 180 degrees, in which 120 degrees is very typical. In a sectorized array, antennas are mounted back-to-back so that they provide full 360-degree coverage. Sector antennas are widely used in cellular communication.

Yagi Antenna

A very commonly used directional antenna is Yagi-Uda Array , also known as Yagi. It was invented by Shintaro Uda and his colleague, Hidetsugu Yagi , in 1926 . A Yagi antenna uses many elements to form a directional array. A single driven element, typically a dipole, propagates RF energy; The elements that are placed immediately in and behind the driven element so that it can re-radiate the RF energy into the in phase and out of phase, as well as enhance and retard the signals respectively. These elements are called parasitic elements.

Those who fall behind the element driven element are called reflectors, while those who come in front of the elements driven element are called directors. Yagi antennas have beamwidths of 30 to 80 degrees and provide a well excess of 10 dBi passive gain .

Parabolic or Dish Antenna

Parabolic, or dish, antennas are directional antenna of very familiar type. A parabola is a symmetric curve; A parabolic reflector is a surface that can provide a complete 360-degree rotation of the curve – this dish is technically called a paraboloid. A parabolic reflector has a high degree of directivity and has the ability to focus RF energy into a beam, such as in a flashlight.

Parabolic antennas have a very narrow beamwidth, usually no more than 25 degrees. Gain depends on the diameter and frequency above; As in 2.4 GHz , a 1 meter dish provides a gain of about 26 dBi, while a 10-meter antenna provides a gain of 46 dBi at the same frequency. This antenna is “fed” with a half-wave dipole antenna or a feed horn. Parabolic antennas are used for long distance communication links between buildings or in large geographic areas. Very large parabolic antennas are used for radio astronomy and can provide gains of 10 million or about 70 dBi.

Grid Antenna

A variation of Dish is called grid antenna. Since a parabolic reflector heals very easily even in moderate wind conditions and their alignment deforms. Therefore, to prevent this problem, the reflector is perforated into a grid. The spacing of Grid elements is frequency dependent; And it is inversely proportional to the frequency. Its Gain and beamwidth is similar to that of parabolic antenna.

How does the antenna work

You will love to know how this Antenna works. Suppose you are incharge of a radio station and you want to transmit your program to the outside world. How are you going to do this? Let’s know! For this, you might use microphones that capture your voice and convert them into electrical energy. You can take that electricity and then take it to a tall metal antenna to send it outside. Where this antenna will boost it very often so that it will be able to travel far and wide, the more you boost this signal, the more it will be able to decide the distance. Since these electrons (tiny particles within the atoms) movement back and forth in electric current along the antenna, this produces an invisible electromagnetic radiation that is in the form of radio waves.

These waves, which are partly electric and partly magnetic, travel at the speed of light, and it carries with it a radio program. What happens when a man turns on the radio in his house which is kilometers away from that station? These are the radio waves that you send through the metal antenna and that force the electrons to wiggle back and forth. It generates an electric current – these signals are electronic components (receivers) of the radio located in your house and re-introduce the signal into the sound that you hear.

The design of transmitter and receiver antennas are very similar. Where the antennas used to send the signal are very big and heavy in the radio or TV station, the receivers like you and we use it in the houses to watch radion channels or tv channels. Are only smaller than senders. But both have the same work.

Waves are not always zaped in the air when they are sent from the transmitter to the receiver. It depends on what kind of waves we are sending, how their frequency is, how far we want to send it, and what we want to do with these waves, etc.: – There are mainly three different types of ways. Is the way waves travel: –

1. The first is ” Line of Sight “, it was used many years ago. In this, waves were sent in a single direction, such as a beam of light. They were used in old-fashioned long-distance telephone networks, in which microwaves were used to carry calls between large high communications towers. But with the use of fiber-optic cables, this technology was completely stopped.

2. Then there is Ground Wave . These waves can travel around the curvature of Earth’s. AM (medium-wave) radio travels this way for short-to-moderate distances . This shows why we can hear radio signals even when we do not see any radio transmitter in front of our eyes.

3. Finally comes the ” Ionospheric Wave “. In this, waves are shot (sent) into the sky, and they

The bounce off is reflected from the ionosphere, and then reaches the ground again. These ionospheres are an electrically charged part in the upper atmosphere of Earth’s which reflect the waves. But they work more well at night because at that time these ionosphere reflect all the waves while in the day they also absorb some waves. Due to this property of the Ionosphere, it is also called Sky Mirror and from this radio waves can be sent to very long distances.

What are some important properties of Antennas?

Although Antenna has many features but here we will talk about some important features only.

Directionality : – Dipoles are very directional: therefore they can pick only those signals which come in right angles towards them. Therefore, it is very important to mount a TV antenna properly in your house, that too in the right way and in the right direction. Admittedly, highly directional antennas seem a little strange and are difficult to install, but even if they are properly aligned, there is very little interference and no unnecessary signals.

Gain : – The gain of an antenna means how much he can boost the signal. Many times you may have noticed that TVs often catch some bad signal without any antenna. This is because its metal case and other components act as a basic antenna, and are not focused in any particular direction, and so they capture the signals near it. By using a proper directional antenna, you can get better gain. Gain is measured in decibels (dB). One thing to understand today is that the more the reception, the better the reception will be. So outdoor antenna works better because they have more gain than indoor.

Bandwidth : – The bandwidth of an antenna over its range of frequencies (or wavelengths, if you prefer it) above which it works effectively. The greater the bandwidth, the greater is its range and by which it can pick up different radio waves. This is more useful for television, where you can pick up a lot of channels. Mobile, Radio has narrow bandwith.

Aperture : Aperture is also called effective aperture of the antenna and it actively participates in the transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves. All those received by the power antenna are associated with the same collective area. This collected area is called effective aperture of an antenna.

Polarization : An electromagnetic wave that can be polarized from an antenna launched vertically and horizontally in both directions. If a wave is polarized in vertical direction, then E vector is vertical and it needs a vertical antenna. Whereas if the vector E is horizontal, then it needs a horizontal antenna to launch. Sometimes circular polarization is also used, it is a combination of both horizontal and vertical ways.

Effective Length : Effective length is a parameter of antennas that characterizes the efficiency of the antenna for how antennas transmit and receive electromagnetic waves. Effective length is defined for both transmitting and receiving antennas. The ratio of the EMF receiver input to intensity electric field that arises in the antenna is called the receivers’ effective length. The effective length of the transmitter is called the length of the conductor’s free space and the current distribution across its length when it generates the same field intensity in any direction of radiation.

Effective Length = (Area under non-uniform current distrbution)/(Area under uniform current distribution)

Polar diagram : This is very important property in an antenna which is called radiation pattern or polar diagram. In the case of transmitting antenna, there is a plot that discusses the strength of the power field which is radiate by the antenna in various angular directions. A plot is obtained for both vertical and horizontal planes – and these are called vertical and horizontal patterns, respectively.

Advantages of Antennas according to their types

Let us know about the advantages of Antennas. As such, these advantages depend on the types of Antennas. Let’s know

➨ Dipole Antenna : They are cheap and exhibit good gains .
➨ Whip Antenna : They deliver good performance by being small size as compared to dipole antenna.
➨ Loop Antenna : They are cheap and not easily de-tuned by hand movements.
➨ Spiral Antenna : Their size is less than whip antenna. They are used more for wideband applications.
➨ Helical Antenna : It is very directive antenna and provides good amount of gain.
➨ Microstrip Antenna: They are very simple and chip antenna. They are used in smartphones because their structure is very thin.
➨ Ceramic Antenna : They are very small size and they are not much affected by environment factors. They use separate components.
➨ Slot Antenna : Their design is very simple and they are small size. They are of more robust nature.

DisAdvantages of Antennas according to their Types

Let us know about the diadvantages of Antennas. As such, these disadvantages depend on the types of Antennas. Let’s know

➨ Dipole Antenna : They exhibit large size in lower frequency.
➨ Whip Antenna : They are very expensive. They require better ground plane to get good performance.
➨ Loop Antenna : They have very poor gain, they are difficult to tune and they are very narrowband.
➨ Spiral Antenna : Its major disadvantage is that it is very difficult to feed these type of antenna.
➨ Helical Antenna : They are very bulky in size. They can be easily de-tuned from nearby objects. Therefore there are more disturbances in it.
➨ Microstrip Antenna: They are very large in lower frequency. PCB design can affect their performance and tuning. It is very difficult to design it for less than 433 MHz.
➨ Ceramic Antenna : These are very high cost. Also, they deliver only medium performance. These are the matching function of PCB size and ground plane shape.
➨ Slot Antenna : Their size is very large in lower frequency and hence they are very difficult to design for lower frequencies which are less than 433 MHz.

What are the applications of Antenna

Antennas have many different applications which vary according to the types of Antenna and their application is also different. Let us know about some important applications.

  • They are mainly used for radio broadcasting.
  • Navigation systems are also used by ships’ sailors.
  • For radio transmission and reception.
  • It is also used to look for directions in GPS .
  • For satellite communication .
  • They are also used for radio frequency identification.

What is the future of Antennas:

Although antennas are generally considered an antiquated technology, telecommunications companies are always in search of how they can innovate these antennas so that they can be used in the next generation of electronics. Speaking of now, then product engineers are now using 3D printing and refined manufacturing techniques to make antennas smaller, lighter, and more powerful than before.

Cell phone companies are working to bring forward 5G technology, which is going to bring a big revolution in the era of small cell towers. In the same way, we can get to see more such technologies, using which the entire body of Antennas can be changed. But one thing is that no matter how many innovations happen, traditional cell phone towers and larger antennas have a very important role for us and about shaping our communication system and it will remain so in the future.

Frequently asked questions

1. How is antenna wire formed?

Stranded copper or copper clad aluminum is used to make A – Antenna Wire. As much as pearl wire, there is also more bandwidth.

2. Antenna word is from which game?

The word A – Antenna is used in the Volleyball game.

3. Inwhich game is the word Antenna used?

The term A – Antenna is used in the Volleyball game.

4. What is mobile antenna?

A – Mobile antenna is a type of antenna which is used in Mobiles. It is designed in such a way that it can also be used during motion. Like when a user is running, or driving by car, this mobile antenna can still work very comfortably.


What is antenna : I hope that I have people ‘s antenna (What is Antenna in Hindi)   I briefed about and hope you guys Antenna  what would understand about. If you have any doubts about this article or you want that there should be some improvement in it, then for this you can write down comments. With these ideas, you will get a chance to learn something and improve something. If you have liked this post about what my antenna is in Hindi or you have got something to learn from it, then please share this post on social networks such as Facebook, Google+ and Twitter  etc. to show your happiness and excitement  .

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